曲线与地形融为一体——首尔东大门设计广场(Zaha Hadid)_建筑邦—第一建筑设计阅读互动平台
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曲线与地形融为一体——首尔东大门设计广场(Zaha Hadid)建筑设计/文化建筑
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设计说明:
这座非标准建筑是毫无接缝的流水线形设计,外观呈曲线形,内部找不到一根柱子。伊拉克裔英国籍建筑家扎哈•哈迪德设计的东大门设计广场就像一座降落在首尔市中心的巨型外星宇宙飞船。

东大门设计广场于2014年3月21日开馆,开馆前访问首尔的建筑师哈迪德表示:“我想要打破建筑与自然的界限。虽然非常难,但是我成功做到了。建筑本身成为地形是东大门设计广场的特点。”

2004年,哈迪德成为首个获得优秀建筑家奖“普利兹克奖”的女建筑师。她还设计过奥地利因斯布鲁克伯吉瑟尔滑雪台(2002)、德国莱比锡宝马中心大楼(2005)、意大利罗马MAXXI(2010)、2020年东京奥运会主赛场等。东大门设计中心作为哈迪德在韩国的首个设计项目,是全球最大的三维非标准建筑物。

哈迪德在建筑界被称为“纸建筑师”,因为很多时候她在图面上的设计并不能建成实际建筑。她的设计大胆前卫,而且不轻易妥协,所以常常在图面设计阶段就中止了。没有任何阻挡与界限是哈迪德设计的特色。不仅是建筑,哈迪德还设计家具、时尚与饰品等。

2007年,哈迪德通过国际征选成为东大门设计广场的设计师。为了追求一种“与市民一起打造的设计”,首尔市将东大门运动场拆除后建造了东大门设计广场。该建筑的主要设计理念是与周边地形的结合。这种与周边公园及遗迹结合的设计理念成功地体现并建造了出来。

东大门设计广场的设计非常复杂,在不同的角度看到的景象都是不一样的。然而,外部墙面统一使用的铝面板带给人一种单纯平和的感觉。

哈迪德的搭档帕特里克•舒马赫表示:“虽然东大门设计广场是一座建筑,但是它没有规则性,而且在每个角度都能看到新的形象与模样,带给人一种走在陌生地方的感觉。重要的是这座建筑没有任何接缝,极具统一感。”

他还表示:“东大门设计广场的建筑概念极具独创性与特色。我们所追求的概念与建筑物的样貌逐渐展露出来以后,也获得了市民的理解。起初,有很多人指出我们的设计过于陌生,但现在气氛有所改变。大部分的作品都经历了这样的过程。”

东大门设计广场仅建筑费用就高达5000亿韩币左右。建筑分为地下三层、地上四层,总面积达85320平方米,是一部设有会议厅、艺术厅、展示馆、工作室、商务中心与便利设施的复合型空间。为了打造这座没有柱子的曲线形建筑,在建筑上使用了最尖端的设计技法“建筑信息模型”。这是一种将二维平面图面信息转换成三维立体设计,并进行设计、施工与保养管理的技法。此外,为了实现完全看不见一根柱子的内部设计,还采用了超大型屋顶巨型桁架与空间框架结构等新技术。

东大门设计广场的结构也非常可观。难以分出层来的各种空间重叠在一起,还有沿着整个建筑盘旋而上的画廊。艺术厅开放工作室面积为2992平方米,最高处高9米,这一开放空间是东大门设计广场的骄傲。此外,广场内还设有连接地下2层到地上4层的旋转楼梯。

东大门设计广场外部被45133块模样不同的铝面板覆盖。制作4毫米厚的铝面板是决定东大门设计广场工程成败的关键难题。哈迪德请英国和德国的相关企业制作二维曲面面板,但她得到的回答是想要一一手工制作这种非标准的面板需要20年的时间。经过反复实验,最终还是利用韩国技术开发了最尖端的成型设备与切断机,并为此申请了6项专利。哈迪德正在向全世界介绍这种实现她设计的韩国外装面板。

三星物产公共事务总监李尚奎(音)表示,这是一座在全世界未曾有过的建筑,因为没有可以参考的资料,所以工程并不容易。为了在预算与工程期间内成功地完成外装面板工程,我们网罗了所有金属成形领域的技术。

DDP is the first public project in Korea to utilize the 3-Dimensional Building Information Modelling (BIM) and other digital tools in construction. Throughout the design process, every building requirement was considered as a set of inter-related spatial relationships which will define the social interactions and behavioural structure in/around the project. These relationships became the framework of the design, defining how different aspects of the project, such as spatial organization, programmatic requirements, and engineering come together.

With parametric building information modelling software and design computation, we were able to continually test and adapt the design to the ever-evolving client’s brief as well as integrate engineering and construction requirements. These technologies helped to maintain the originaldesign aspiration throughout the project’s construction. It also streamlined the architectural design process and coordination with consultants. The parametric modelling process not only improved the efficiency of workflow, but also helped to make the most informed design decisions within a very compressed project period; ensuring DDP’s success throughout life-span.

In construction, the benefits of using the parametric modelling techniques are apparent. The digital design model could be refined at any time throughout the design and construction to accommodate additional onsite conditions, local regulations, engineering requirements and cost controls. The team were able to have greater control of the design and details, with much greater precision than a conventional construction process; giving the client and the contractors a much better understanding and control of the project.

The DDP façade cladding system is an exemplary result of such a process. Construction the exterior envelope of DDP was a challenge as the cladding system consists of over 45,000 panels in various sizes and degrees of curvature. This was made possible by the use of parametric modelling with an advanced metal-forming and fabrication process to develop a mass-customization system. Parametric modelling enabled the cladding system to be designed and engineered with much greater cost and quality control. Throughout the construction process, the cladding model was adjusted to incorporate various engineering, fabrication, and cost controls while maintaining the integrity of the original design.

The completed façade incorporates a field of pixilation and perforation patterns, which creates dynamic visual effect depending on the lighting conditions and seasonal changes. It will take on different characters as the external condition changes. Sometimes, it will look as a singular entity; sometimes, it blends with the surrounding landscape as part of the complete ensemble of Dongdaemun. At night, the building will reflect all the LED lights and neon signs of the surrounding buildings. With the interplay of the built-in façade lighting, the building’s appearance will be animated and take on the characteristics of its unique urban settings.

The client’s vision must be congratulated. The DDP design shows a commitment to preserve the site’s history and integrate the newly discovered history in an architectural landscape that revolves around the ancient city wall and historical artefacts – which form the central element of the composition. This external landscape transforms Seoul into a greener city, while voids and folds in its surface offers glimpses into innovative world of design below; making DDP an important link between the city’s contemporary culture, historic artefacts and emerging nature.

DDP continues Korea’s architectural and engineering traditions at the forefront of technology. DDP is a built demonstration and celebration of the skills and passion of the team who helped to bring this fantastic building to life.
技术经济指标:
设计机构/Architects: Zaha Hadid Architects
位置/Location: 281 Euljiro-dong, Jung-gu, Seoul, South Korea
首席设计师/Architect In Charge: Zaha Hadid Architects
设计合作/Design Partners: Zaha Hadid with Patrik Schumacher
面积/Area: 89574.0 sqm
日期/Year: 2014
摄影/Photographs: Virgile Simon Bertrand

Zha Project Leader: Eddie Can Chiu-Fai
Zha Project Managers: Craig Kiner and Charles Walker
Zha Project Team: Kaloyan Erevinov, Hooman Talebi, Matthew Wong, Martin Self, Carlos S. Martinez, Camiel Weijenberg, Florian Goscheff, Maaike Hawinkels, Aditya Chandra, Andy Chang, Arianna Russo, Ayat Fadaifard, Josias Hamid, Shuojiong Zhang, Natalie Koerner, Jae Yoon Lee, Federico Rossi, John Klein, Chikara Inamura, Alan Lu
Zha Competition Team: Kaloyan Erevinov, Paloma Gormley, Hee Seung Lee, Kelly Lee, Andres Madrid, Deniz Manisali, Kevin McClellan, Claus Voigtmann, Maurits Fennis
Local Architect: Samoo Architects & Engineers (Seoul, Korea)
Local Structure Consultant: Postech
Local Mechanical Consultant: Samoo Mechanical Consulting (SMC)
Local Electrical & Telcom Consultant: Samoo TEC
Local Façade Consultant: Mac M&C
Local Civil Consultant: Saegil Engineering & Consulting
Local Landscape Consultant: Dong Sim Won
Local Fire Consultant: Korean Fire Protection Engineering
Local Lighting Consultant: Huel Lighting Design
Local Quantity Survey Consultant: Kyoung Won
Local Cultural Asset Consultant: Josun
Local Acoustic Consultant: OSD
Local Noise / Vibration Consultant: RMS Technology
Local Energy Analytics Consultant: Daeil ENC
Local Maintenance Consultant: Doall CMC
Local Environmental Impact Consultant: Soosung Engineering
Local Planning Permission Consultant: Sewon P&D
International Structure/M.E.P.F. Services/Lighting/Acoustic Consultant: ARUP Engineers (London, U.K.)
Inernational Lanscape Consultant: Gross Max (Edinburgh, U.K.)
International Façade Consultant: Group 5F (Basel,Switzerland)
International Geometry Consultant: Evolute (Vennia, Austria)
Quantity Survey Consultant: Davis Langdon & Everest (London, U.K.)
Site Area: 65000 sqm
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